Toxicity of botulinum toxin type G (botG)

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
Related Species
Clostridium botulinum
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Botulinum toxin type G (botG) is rarely if ever associated with human disease (Hatheway 1995) and a pathway by which it might enter the circulation from the human gut has not been described. Nevertheless, the toxin itself, a disulfide-bonded heavy chain (HC) - light chain (LC) heterodimer ("dichain"), is capable of binding to neurons by interactions with cell-surface ganglioside and syntagmin 1 (SYT1) (Peng et al. 2012; Willjes et al. 2013), the bound toxin can enter synaptic vesicles and release its LC moiety into the cytosol of targeted cells (Montal 2010), and the botG LC can cleave vesicle-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (VAMP1 and 2) on the cytosolic face of the synaptic vesicle membrane (Schiavo et al. 1994; Yamasaki et al. 1994). These four events are annotated here.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
23647335 Botulinum neurotoxin G binds synaptotagmin-II in a mode similar to that of serotype B: tyrosine 1186 and lysine 1191 cause its lower affinity

Mahrhold, S, Strotmeier, J, Rummel, A, Eichner, T, Binz, T, Willjes, G

Biochemistry 2013
7910017 Botulinum neurotoxin type G proteolyses the Ala81-Ala82 bond of rat synaptobrevin 2

Hayashi, T, Yamasaki, S, Niemann, H, Eklund, M, Szabo, E, Binz, T, Jahn, R, Yamasaki, N

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1994
22454523 Botulinum neurotoxin D-C uses synaptotagmin I and II as receptors, and human synaptotagmin II is not an effective receptor for type B, D-C and G toxins

Pitkin, RM, Tepp, WH, Berntsson, RP, Stenmark, P, Dong, M, Peng, L, Johnson, EA

J. Cell. Sci. 2012
20233039 Botulinum neurotoxin: a marvel of protein design

Montal, M

Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2010
8051110 Botulinum G neurotoxin cleaves VAMP/synaptobrevin at a single Ala-Ala peptide bond

Malizio, C, Polverino de Laureto, P, Trimble, WS, Schiavo, G, Milan, G, Montecucco, C, Johnson, EA, Sugiyama, H

J. Biol. Chem. 1994
8542759 Botulism: the present status of the disease

Hatheway, CL

Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 1995
Name Identifier Synonyms
botulism DOID:11976 Botulism (disorder), Intoxication with Clostridium botulinum toxin, Botulism, Infection due to clostridium botulinum, Botulism, Foodborne botulism, botulism, Botulism, Botulism, Botulism, Food poisoning due to Clostridium botulinum, Botulism poisoning
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