Toxicity of tetanus toxin (tetX)

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-5250982
Type
Pathway
Species
Homo sapiens
Related Species
Clostridium tetani
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Tetanus toxin (tetX, also known as TeNT), a disulfide-bonded heavy chain (HC) - light chain (LC) dimer, is secreted from bacteria growing in an infected wound directly into the circulation. Circulating toxin molecules associate with gangliosides at a synapse of a target neuron. The toxin is taken up into clathrin-coated vesicles that reach the neuron cell body by retrograde transport and then possibly other neurons before undergoing acidification. Vesicle acidification causes a conformational change in the toxin, allowing its HC part to function as a channel through which its LC part is extruded into the neuronal cytosol. Cleavage of the HC - LC disulfide bond releases the LC into the cytosol, where it functions as a zinc metalloprotease to cleave vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), thereby blocking synaptic vesicle exocytosis (Lalli et al. 2003).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
13678859 The journey of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins in neurons

Lalli, G, Bohnert, S, Deinhardt, K, Verastegui, C, Schiavo, G

Trends Microbiol 2003
Participants
Participates
Disease
Name Identifier Synonyms
tetanus DOID:11338 clostridial tetanus, Tetanus (disorder), Infection due to Clostridium tetani (disorder)
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