LCNs bind lipids

Stable Identifier
Reaction [binding]
Homo sapiens
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Lipocalins (LCNs) are a family of extracellular proteins that are implicated in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as lipids, retinoids, steroids and bilins (Grzyb et al. 2006). The family members differ in amino acid sequence but they share a highly conserved beta-barrel structure comprised of an eight-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet. This structure forms a ligand-binding pocket that is responsible for binding and transporting lipids and other small hydrophobic molecules (Flower et al. 1993). LCNs have been associated with many biological processes such as immune response, prostaglandin synthesis, retinoid binding and cancer cell interactions. Lipocalins 1, 9, 12, and 15 (LCN1, 9, 12 and 15) are all able to transport different types of hydrophobic molecules.

Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a 29-kDa glycoprotein that is primarily associated with high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in human plasma (Drayna et al. 1986, Yang et al. 1994). It is an atypical apolipoprotein and, based on its primary structure, it is predicted to be a member of the lipocalin family. Lipocalins adopt a tertiary beta-barrel structure and transport small hydrophobic ligands. Although APOD can bind cholesterol, progesterone, pregnenolone, bilirubin and arachidonic acid, it is unclear if any, or all of these, represent its physiological ligands (Perdomo et al. 2010). APOD's role in lipid metabolism could have implication in atherosclerosis and ageing (Perdomo & Dong 2009).
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
3453108 Cloning and expression of human apolipoprotein D cDNA

Henzel, W, Drayna, D, Chen, E, Rhee, L, Castro, G, Fielding, C, Baer, B, Comstock, L, McLean, J, Kohr, W

J. Biol. Chem. 1986
19946382 Apolipoprotein D in lipid metabolism and its functional implication in atherosclerosis and aging

Henry Dong, H, Perdomo, G

Aging (Albany NY) 2009
16504339 Lipocalins - a family portrait

Grzyb, J, Strza?ka, K, Latowski, D

J. Plant Physiol. 2006
7684291 Structure and sequence relationships in the lipocalins and related proteins

Flower, DR, North, AC, Attwood, TK

Protein Sci. 1993
7918467 Structure of human apolipoprotein D: locations of the intermolecular and intramolecular disulfide links

Pownall, HJ, Massey, JB, Gaskell, SJ, Gotto, AM, Yang, M, Blanco-Vaca, F, Gu, ZW, Yang, CY

Biochemistry 1994
20124557 A role of apolipoprotein D in triglyceride metabolism

Dong, HH, Fan, Y, Toledo, FG, Perdomo, G, Thomas, EA, Kim, DH, Kelley, DE, Slusher, S, Qu, S, Zhang, T

J. Lipid Res. 2010
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