ROCK I (alternatively called ROK ?) and ROCK II (also known as Rho kinase or ROK ?) were originally isolated as RhoA-GTP interacting proteins. The kinase domains of ROCK I and ROCK II are 92% identical, and so far there is no evidence that they phosphorylate different substrates. RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC associate with and activate ROCK but other GTP-binding proteins can be inhibitors, e.g. RhoE, Rad and Gem. PDK1 kinase promotes ROCK I activity not through phosphorylation but by blocking RhoE association. PLK1 can phosphorylate ROCK II and this enhances the effect of RhoA. Arachidonic acid can activate ROCK independently of Rho.