Post-transcriptional silencing by small RNAs

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Homo sapiens
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Small RNAs act with components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to post-transcriptionally repress expression of mRNAs (reviewed in Nowotny and Yang 2009, Chua et al. 2009). Two mechanisms exist: 1) cleavage of target RNAs by complexes containing Argonaute2 (AGO2, EIF2C2) and a guide RNA that exactly matches the target mRNA and 2) inhibition of translation of target RNAs by complexes containing AGO2 and an inexactly matching guide RNA or by complexes containing a nonendonucleolytic Argonaute (AGO1 (EIF2C1), AGO3 (EIF2C3), or AGO4 (EIF2C4)) and a guide RNA of exact or inexact match. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as guide RNAs in both types of mechanism.
RNAi also appears to direct chromatin modifications that cause transcriptional gene silencing (reviewed in Verdel et al. 2009).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
17197185 Repression of protein synthesis by miRNAs: how many mechanisms?

Filipowicz, W, Pillai, RS, Bhattacharyya, SN

Trends Cell Biol 2007
16510870 Control of translation and mRNA degradation by miRNAs and siRNAs

Liu, J, Hannon, GJ, Parker, R, Valencia-Sanchez, MA

Genes Dev 2006
18692607 RISC-target interaction: cleavage and translational suppression

van den Berg, A, Mols, J, Han, J

Biochim Biophys Acta 2008
26077373 Towards a molecular understanding of microRNA-mediated gene silencing

Izaurralde, E, Jonas, S

Nat. Rev. Genet. 2015
17560368 Argonaute proteins: mediators of RNA silencing

Peters, L, Meister, G

Mol Cell 2007
12154197 A microRNA in a multiple-turnover RNAi enzyme complex

Hutvagner, G, Zamore, PD

Science 2002
15284456 Argonaute2 is the catalytic engine of mammalian RNAi

Hammond, SM, Marsden, CG, Liu, J, Carmell, MA, Hannon, GJ, Song, JJ, Thomson, JM, Rivas, FV, Joshua-Tor, L

Science 2004
17632058 Molecular basis for target RNA recognition and cleavage by human RISC

Schroeder, R, Ameres, SL, Martinez, J

Cell 2007
19477631 Structural and functional modules in RNA interference

Nowotny, M, Yang, W

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2009
15260970 Human Argonaute2 mediates RNA cleavage targeted by miRNAs and siRNAs

Teng, G, Landthaler, M, Tuschl, T, Patkaniowska, A, Dorsett, Y, Meister, G

Mol Cell 2004
19239886 Origins and Mechanisms of miRNAs and siRNAs

Carthew, RW, Sontheimer, EJ

Cell 2009
19330724 MicroRNAs: biogenesis, function and applications

Chua, JH, Jeyaseelan, K, Armugam, A

Curr Opin Mol Ther 2009
17128271 Evidence that microRNAs are associated with translating messenger RNAs in human cells

Nilsen, TW, Fisher, J, Maroney, PA, Yu, Y

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2006
19174539 Essential and overlapping functions for mammalian Argonautes in microRNA silencing

Su, H, Trombly, MI, Chen, J, Wang, X

Genes Dev 2009
19412884 Common themes in siRNA-mediated epigenetic silencing pathways

Verdel, A, Vavasseur, A, Touat-Todeschini, L, Le Gorrec, M

Int J Dev Biol 2009
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