Expression of Preproghrelin

Stable Identifier
Reaction [omitted]
Homo sapiens
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As inferred from rat homologues, Urocortin (UCN) binds the CRHR2 (CRF2) receptor and reduces levels of preproghrelin mRNA in the gastric body, causing reduced secretion of ghrelin (Yakabi et al. 2011). The ghrelin gene is transcribed and spliced to yield two variants: isoform 1 encodes full-length preproghrelin and isoform 2 encodes des-acyl-Gln14 preproghrelin, which is missing glutamine at position 14 of the mature peptide. Des-acyl-Gln14 ghrelin is found in rodents but is present in negligible quantities in humans. Somatostatin and leptin inhibit ghrelin mRNA levels. Estrogen increases ghrelin mRNA levels. The KLF4 transcription factor binds the ghrelin promoter and activates transcription. Putative binding sites for other transcription factors have been identified but their functions have not been demonstrated.
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
19280057 Ghrelin fluctuation, what determines its production?

Yin, X, Li, Y, Zhang, W, An, W, Xu, G

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2009
15604212 Characterization and regulation of the rat and human ghrelin promoters

Englander, EW, Wang, G, Qi, X, Wei, W, Greeley GH, Jr

Endocrinology 2005
19327128 KLF4 positively regulates human ghrelin expression

Kang, YM, Moon, CS, Lim, JH, Song, J, Lee, HJ, Suh, YH, Jung, MH, Joe, MK

Biochem J 2009
18396350 Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin: three pieces of the same puzzle

Soares, JB, Leite-Moreira, AF

Peptides 2008
10604470 Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach

Date, Y, Kangawa, K, Hosoda, H, Matsuo, H, Kojima, M, Nakazato, M

Nature 1999
12050285 The tissue distribution of the mRNA of ghrelin and subtypes of its receptor, GHS-R, in humans

Korbonits, M, Gnanapavan, S, Fairclough, P, Bustin, SA, Carpenter, R, Morris, DG, Bhattacharya, S, McGee, P, Grossman, AB, Kola, B

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002
15142980 Genomic structure and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human ghrelin gene

Kangawa, K, Akamizu, T, Nakao, K, Tagami, T, Kanamoto, N, Hosoda, H, Moriyama, K, Takaya, K, Hataya, Y, Kojima, M

Endocrinology 2004
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