Five EDG-encoded receptors can all bind sphingolipid-1-phosphate (S1P), a second messenger implicated in cell survival, cell migration, and inflammation. The five genes encoding the receptors are EDG1, 3, 5, 6 and 8.
EDG1 is a human gene which encodes a GPCR which binds S1P. Hence this receptor is also known as S1PR1 (Hla T, Maciag T, 1990). S1PR1 seems to couple with Gi proteins (Lee MJ et al, 1996).
EDG5 encodes the GPCR known as S1PR2 (An S et al, 2000). This protein participates in S1P-induced cell proliferation, survival, and transcriptional activation, effects mediated by coupling to Gi and Gq proteins (Windh RT et al, 1999).
EDG3 encodes a GPCR known as S1PR3 (Yamaguchi F et al, 1996). This protein contributes to the regulation of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial cell function. These effects are mediated by coupling with Gi, Gq/11 and G12/13 proteins (Windh RT et al, 1999).
EDG6 encodes the GPCR known as S1PR4 (Graler MH et al, 1998). This EDG receptor gene is intronless and is specifically expressed in the lymphoid tissue. It's actions are mediated by coupling with Gi/o proteins to inhibit adenylyl cyclase (Van Brocklyn JR et al, 2000).
EDG8 encodes the GPCR known as S1PR5 (Kothapalli R et al, 2002). Its actions are mediated by coupling with Gi/o proteins to inhibit adenylyl cyclase (Im DS et al, 2000).