Beta-tubulin folding intermediates generated via ATP-dependent interaction with TriC/CCT are captured by tubulin-specific chaperones A and D (TBCA and TBCD) (Tian et al. 1996, Tian et al. 1997) in a reversible reaction forming tubulin intermediate/cofactor complexes Factor A:beta tubulin or Factor D:beta tubulin. TBCD is involved in the tubulin-folding pathway, acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for beta-tubulin. The ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 2 (ARL2) is able to down-regulate TBCD specifically, thus preventing microtuble disruption (Bhamidipati et al. 2000, Tian et al. 2010).