Synthesis of Preproglucagon in intestinal L cells

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Reaction [omitted]
Homo sapiens
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TCF-4 and Beta-Catenin form a heterodimer that bind the G2 element of the promoter of the Proglucagon (GCG) gene in L2 cells of the intestine. CDX-2 binds an AT-rich sequence in the G1 enhancer element of the GCG promoter. Transcription of the GCG gene is enhanced by cAMP, calcium, and insulin and the Beta-Catenin:TCF-4 binding region of the promoter is necessary for this regulation. It is therefore postulated that the Wnt signaling pathway (Beta-Catenin) crosstalks with the cAMP-PKA pathway and/or the cAMP-EPAC pathway. Beta-catenin:TCF-4 bound at the promoter of the GCG gene recruits RNA polymerase II. This regulation is inferred from experiments in mouse and rat cells.
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
12810581 Muscarinic receptors control glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion by human endocrine L cells

Anini, Y, Brubaker, PL

Endocrinology 2003
3841689 Glucagon- and PP-related peptides of intestinal L cells and pancreatic/gastric A or PP cells. Possible interrelationships of peptides and cells during evolution, fetal development and tumor growth

Yanaihara, N, Sessa, F, Solcia, E, Rindi, G, Capella, C, Fiocca, R, Schwartz, TW, Usellini, L

Peptides 1985
12540594 Role of leptin in the regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion

Anini, Y, Brubaker, PL

Diabetes 2003
11564718 A human cellular model for studying the regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion

Gremlich, S, Macé, K, Darimont, C, Nicolas-Métral, V, Rüegg, UT, Reimer, RA

Endocrinology 2001
16219666 Human duodenal enteroendocrine cells: source of both incretin peptides, GLP-1 and GIP

Michopoulos, S, Juhaszova, M, Petraki, K, Carlson, O, Egan, JM, Doyle, ME, Theodorakis, MJ

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006
16728727 Colocalization of the alpha-subunit of gustducin with PYY and GLP-1 in L cells of human colon

Huang, C, Rozengurt, N, Rozengurt, E, Sternini, C, Wu, SV, Chen, MC

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006
1499644 Glucagon-like peptide-1 cells in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of rat, pig and man

Göke, R, Göke, B, Harthus, HP, Eissele, R, Arnold, R, Willemer, S, Vermeer, H

Eur J Clin Invest 1992
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