Synthesis of Preproglucagon in intestinal L cells

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Reaction [omitted]
Homo sapiens
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TCF-4 and Beta-Catenin form a heterodimer that bind the G2 element of the promoter of the Proglucagon (GCG) gene in L2 cells of the intestine. CDX-2 binds an AT-rich sequence in the G1 enhancer element of the GCG promoter. Transcription of the GCG gene is enhanced by cAMP, calcium, and insulin and the Beta-Catenin:TCF-4 binding region of the promoter is necessary for this regulation. It is therefore postulated that the Wnt signaling pathway (Beta-Catenin) crosstalks with the cAMP-PKA pathway and/or the cAMP-EPAC pathway.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
3841689 Glucagon- and PP-related peptides of intestinal L cells and pancreatic/gastric A or PP cells. Possible interrelationships of peptides and cells during evolution, fetal development and tumor growth

Solcia, E, Fiocca, R, Capella, C, Usellini, L, Sessa, F, Rindi, G, Schwartz, TW, Yanaihara, N

Peptides 1985
12810581 Muscarinic receptors control glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion by human endocrine L cells

Anini, Y, Brubaker, PL

Endocrinology 2003
12540594 Role of leptin in the regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion

Anini, Y, Brubaker, PL

Diabetes 2003
11564718 A human cellular model for studying the regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion

Reimer, RA, Darimont, C, Gremlich, S, Nicolas-Métral, V, Rüegg, UT, Macé, K

Endocrinology 2001
16219666 Human duodenal enteroendocrine cells: source of both incretin peptides, GLP-1 and GIP

Theodorakis, MJ, Carlson, O, Michopoulos, S, Doyle, ME, Juhaszova, M, Petraki, K, Egan, JM

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006
16728727 Colocalization of the alpha-subunit of gustducin with PYY and GLP-1 in L cells of human colon

Rozengurt, N, Wu, SV, Chen, MC, Huang, C, Sternini, C, Rozengurt, E

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006
1499644 Glucagon-like peptide-1 cells in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of rat, pig and man

Eissele, R, Göke, R, Willemer, S, Harthus, HP, Vermeer, H, Arnold, R, Göke, B

Eur J Clin Invest 1992
This event is regulated
Positively by

Beta-catenin:TCF-4 bound at the promoter of the GCG gene recruits RNA polymerase II. This regulation is inferred from experiments in mouse and rat cells.

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