Leucine-rich repeat flightless-interacting protein 1 (LRRFIP1) can bind exogenous double-stranded RNA and double-stranded DNA (Wilson SA et al. 1998; Yang P et al. 2010). LRRFIP1 was shown to mediate Listeria monocytogenes- and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced IFN-beta production in mouse primary macrophages by regulating beta-catenin activity. Beta-catenin possibly functions as a transcriptional cofactor of IRF3 to initiate Ifnb1 transcription (Yang P et al. 2010).