Beta-catenin undergoes phosphorylation at Ser552 in a Lrrfip1-dependent manner in pathogen-infected mouse macrophages (Yang P et al. 2010). Studies on human cells showed that the protein kinase Akt can phosphorylate beta-catenin at Ser552 upon treatment with various stimuli such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, it remains to be determined which kinase is involved in up-regulation of beta-catenin downstream of LRRFIP1 (Fang D et al. 2007; Bose SK et al. 2012). Phosphorylated beta-catenin translocates to the nucleus.