Phosphorylated condensin I promotes condensation of prometaphase chromosomes

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Homo sapiens
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While condensin II complex (consisting of subunits SMC2, SMC4, NCAPD3, NCAPG2 and NCAPH2), responsible for condensation of chromosomes in prophase (Hirota et al. 2004, Abe et al. 2011), is nuclear, condensin I is cytosolic and gains access to chromosomes only after the nuclear envelope breakdown at the start of prometaphase (Ono et al. 2004). Condensin I, activated by CDK1 phosphorylation (Kimura et al. 1998, Kimura et al. 2001, Takemoto et al. 2006, Murphy et al. 2008), promotes further condensation of chromosomes in prometaphase and metaphase, visible as longitudinal chromosome shortening (Hirota et al. 2004). Besides CDK1-mediated phosphorylation, association of condensin I with chromosomes may be regulated by AURKB (Lipp et al. 2007). In budding yeast, condensin phosphorylation by Cdc2 (CDK1 ortholog) is followed by Cdc5-mediated phosphorylation (Cdc5 is PLK1 ortholog), which is important for the sustained mitotic activity of condensin complex (St-Pierre et al. 2009). Phosphorylation by PLK1 is also important for the activation of human condensin II complex (Abe et al. 2011).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
11136719 Chromosome condensation by a human condensin complex in Xenopus egg extracts

Cuvier, O, Kimura, K, Hirano, T

J. Biol. Chem. 2001
18977199 Phosphorylation of CAP-G is required for its chromosomal DNA localization during mitosis

Sarge, KD, Murphy, LA

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2008
17356064 Aurora B controls the association of condensin I but not condensin II with mitotic chromosomes

Hirota, T, Peters, JM, Poser, I, Lipp, JJ

J. Cell. Sci. 2007
9774278 Phosphorylation and activation of 13S condensin by Cdc2 in vitro

Hirano, M, Hirano, T, Kobayashi, R, Kimura, K

Science 1998
15572404 Distinct functions of condensin I and II in mitotic chromosome assembly

Hirota, T, Peters, JM, Koch, B, Ellenberg, J, Gerlich, D

J. Cell. Sci. 2004
15146063 Spatial and temporal regulation of Condensins I and II in mitotic chromosome assembly in human cells

Fang, Y, Spector, DL, Ono, T, Hirano, T

Mol. Biol. Cell 2004
17066080 Negative regulation of condensin I by CK2-mediated phosphorylation

Kimura, K, Yanagisawa, J, Hanaoka, F, Takemoto, A, Yokoyama, S

EMBO J. 2006
19481522 Polo kinase regulates mitotic chromosome condensation by hyperactivation of condensin DNA supercoiling activity

St-Pierre, J, Ratsima, H, Pascariu, M, D'Amours, D, Bonneil, E, Bazile, F, Douziech, M, Sauvé, V

Mol. Cell 2009
21498573 The initial phase of chromosome condensation requires Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of the CAP-D3 subunit of condensin II

Nagasaka, K, Hirota, T, Aoyagi, Y, Abe, S, Kozuka-Hata, H, Obuse, C, Oyama, M, Hirayama, Y

Genes Dev. 2011
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