The canonical retinoid cycle in rods (twilight vision)

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Homo sapiens
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The retinoid cycle (also referred to as the visual cycle) is the process by which the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal (11cRAL) is released from light-activated opsins in the form all-trans-retinal and isomerized back to its 11-cis isomer ready for another photoisomerization reaction. This process involves oxidation, reduction and isomerization reactions and take place in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor segments of the eye (von Lintig 2012, Blomhoff & Blomhoff 2006, von Lintig et al. 2010, D'Ambrosio et al. 2011). This section describes the retinoid cycle in rods during dark/twilight conditions.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
20188572 The biochemical and structural basis for trans-to-cis isomerization of retinoids in the chemistry of vision

von Lintig, J, Kiser, PD, Golczak, M, Palczewski, K

Trends Biochem. Sci. 2010
21350678 Vitamin A metabolism: an update

D'Ambrosio, DN, Clugston, RD, Blaner, WS

Nutrients 2011
16688755 Overview of retinoid metabolism and function

Blomhoff, R, Blomhoff, HK

J. Neurobiol. 2006
22074927 Metabolism of carotenoids and retinoids related to vision

von Lintig, J

J. Biol. Chem. 2012
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