Transcriptional activity of SMAD2/SMAD3:SMAD4 heterotrimer

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Homo sapiens
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In the nucleus, SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer complex acts as a transcriptional regulator. The activity of SMAD2/3 complex is regulated both positively and negatively by association with other transcription factors (Chen et al. 2002, Varelas et al. 2008, Stroschein et al. 1999, Wotton et al. 1999). In addition, the activity of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complex can be inhibited by nuclear protein phosphatases and ubiquitin ligases (Lin et al. 2006, Dupont et al. 2009).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
12150994 E2F4/5 and p107 as Smad cofactors linking the TGFbeta receptor to c-myc repression

Massague, J, Siegel, PM, Chen, CR, Kang, Y

Cell 2002
10531062 Negative feedback regulation of TGF-beta signaling by the SnoN oncoprotein

Zhou, Q, Luo, K, Zhou, S, Stroschein, SL, Wang, W

Science 1999
19135894 FAM/USP9x, a deubiquitinating enzyme essential for TGFbeta signaling, controls Smad4 monoubiquitination

Stinchfield, MJ, Montagner, M, Morsut, L, Piccolo, S, Inui, M, Moro, S, Mamidi, A, Newfeld, SJ, Soligo, S, Dupont, S, Argenton, F, Martello, G, Modena, N, Adorno, M, Zacchigna, L, Cordenonsi, M

Cell 2009
10199400 A Smad transcriptional corepressor

Massague, J, Lee, S, Lo, RS, Wotton, D

Cell 1999
18568018 TAZ controls Smad nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and regulates human embryonic stem-cell self-renewal

Wrana, JL, Peerani, R, Rao, BM, Samavarchi-Tehrani, P, Sakuma, R, Zandstra, PW, Varelas, X, Yaffe, MB, Dembowy, J

Nat Cell Biol 2008
16751101 PPM1A functions as a Smad phosphatase to terminate TGFbeta signaling

Wrighton, KH, Shi, Y, Liang, YY, Brunicardi, FC, Duan, X, Feng, XH, Chen, YG, Su, Y, Lin, X, Hu, M, Meng, A, Wang, J, Davis, CM, Long, J

Cell 2006
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