PRC2 methylates histones and DNA

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
Methylation of Histones and DNA by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2)
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Polycomb group proteins are responsible for the heritable repression of genes during development (Lee et al. 2006, Ku et al. 2008, reviewed in Simon and Kingston 2009, Margueron and Reinberg 2011, Di Croce and Helin 2013). Two major families of Polycomb complexes exist: Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) and Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). PRC1 and PRC2 each appear to comprise sets of distinct complexes that contain common core subunits and distinct accessory subunits (reviewed in Nayak et al. 2011). PRC2, through its component EZH2 or, in some complexes, EZH1 produces the initial molecular mark of repression, the trimethylation of lysine-27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). How PRC2 is initially recruited to a locus remains unknown, however cytosine-guanine (CpG) motifs and transcripts have been suggested. Different mechanisms may be used at different loci. The trimethylated H3K27 produced by PRC2 is bound by the Polycomb subunit of PRC1. PRC1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and maintains repression.
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
24096405 Transcriptional regulation by Polycomb group proteins

Helin, K, Di Croce, L

Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2013
23473600 Occupying chromatin: Polycomb mechanisms for getting to genomic targets, stopping transcriptional traffic, and staying put

Simon, JA, Kingston, RE

Mol. Cell 2013
21941108 Composition, recruitment and regulation of the PRC2 complex

Min, J, Nayak, V, Xu, C

Nucleus 2011
19738629 Mechanisms of polycomb gene silencing: knowns and unknowns

Simon, JA, Kingston, RE

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2009
21248841 The Polycomb complex PRC2 and its mark in life

Reinberg, D, Margueron, R

Nature 2011
18974828 Genomewide analysis of PRC1 and PRC2 occupancy identifies two classes of bivalent domains

Adli, M, Ku, M, Xie, X, Rheinbay, E, Kasif, S, Ptaszek, LM, Koseki, H, Presser, A, Cowan, CA, Chi, AS, Nusbaum, C, Bernstein, BE, Lander, ES, Mendenhall, EM, Endoh, M, Koche, RP, Mikkelsen, TS

PLoS Genet. 2008
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