Vitamins are a diverse group of organic compounds, required in small amounts in the diet. They have distinct biochemical roles, often as coenzymes, and are either not synthesized or synthesized only in limited amounts by human cells. Vitamins are classified according to their solubility, either fat-soluble or water-soluble. The physiological processes dependent on vitamin-requiring reactions include many aspects of intermediary metabolism, vision, bone formation, and blood coagulation, and vitamin deficiencies are associated with a correspondingly diverse and severe group of diseases.
Water-soluble vitamins include ascorbate (vitamin C) and the members of the B group: thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenate (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), folate (B9), and cobalamin (B12). Metabolic processes annotated here include the synthesis of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) from thiamin (B1), the synthesis of FMN and FAD from riboflavin (B2), the synthesis of nicotinic acid (niacin - B3) from tryptophan, the synthesis of Coenzyme A from pantothenate (B5), features of the metabolism of folate (B9), the uptake, transport, and metabolism of cobalamin (B12), and molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis.