ERBB2:ERBB3 and ERBB2:ERBB4cyt1 heterodimers activate PI3K signaling by direct binding of PI3K regulatory subunit p85 (Yang et al. 2007, Cohen et al. 1996, Kaushansky et al. 2008) to phosphorylated tyrosine residues in the C-tail of ERBB3 (Y1054, Y1197, Y1222, Y1224, Y1276 and Y1289) and ERBB4 CYT1 isoforms (Y1056 in JM-A CYT1 isoform and Y1046 in JM-B CYT1 isoform). Regulatory subunit p85 subsequently recruits catalytic subunit p110 of PI3K, resulting in the formation of active PI3K, conversion of PIP2 to PIP3, and PIP3-mediated activation of AKT signaling (Junttila et al. 2009, Kainulainen et al. 2000). Heterodimers of ERBB2 and EGFR recruit PI3K indirectly, through GRB2:GAB1 complex (Jackson et al. 2004), which again leads to PIP3-mediated activation of AKT signaling.