The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational change that unmasks the dimerization interface in the extracellular domain of EGFR, leading to receptor homo- or heterodimerization at the cell surface. Dimerization of the extracellular regions of EGFR triggers additional conformational change of the cytoplasmic EGFR regions, enabling the kinase domains of two EGFR molecules to achieve the catalytically active conformation. Ligand activated EGFR dimers trans-autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor. Phosphorylated tyrosines serve as binding sites for the recruitment of signal transducers and activators of intracellular substrates, which then stimulate intracellular signal transduction cascades that are involved in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Recruitment of complexes containing GRB2 and SOS1 to phosphorylated EGFR dimers either directly, through phosphotyrosine residues that serve as GRB2 docking sites, or indirectly, through SHC1 recruitment, promotes GDP to GTP exchange on RAS, resulting in the activation of RAF/MAP kinase cascade. Binding of complexes of GRB2 and GAB1 to phosphorylated EGFR dimers leads to formation of the active PI3K complex, conversion of PIP2 into PIP3, and activation of AKT signaling. Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLCG1) can also be recruited directly, through EGFR phosphotyrosine residues that serve as PLCG1 docking sites, which leads to PLCG1 phosphorylation by EGFR and activation of DAG and IP3 signaling. EGFR signaling is downregulated by the action of ubiquitin ligase CBL. CBL binds directly to the phosphorylated EGFR dimer through the phosphotyrosine Y1069 (i.e. Y1045 in the mature protein) in the C-tail of EGFR, and after CBL is phosphorylated by EGFR, it becomes active and ubiquitinates phosphorylated EGFR dimers, targeting them for degradation. For a recent review of EGFR signaling, please refer to Avraham and Yarden, 2011.