Fusion of viral membrane with host cell membrane

Stable Identifier
Reaction [dissociation]
Homo sapiens
Related Species
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
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With the transition of gp41 into the six-helix bundle, fusion of the viral and target cell membranes begins to take place. The specifics of fusion are not completely clear, but it is understood that fusion proceeds after insertion of the gp41 fusion peptide, which results in curvature of viral and target cell membranes. This results in a state of hemi-fusion, where only the outer lipid bilayers of each membrane are fused, whereas membrane leaflets that are distal with respect to the intermembrane gap remain separate at this stage. Hemi-fusion allows the exchange of lipids between the contacting leaflets, whereas the exchange of aqueous content between the virus and the cell remains blocked. The next step in fusion is the merger of the distal leaflets, leading to the formation of a nascent fusion pore, which leads to mixing of viral and cellular contents. Studies of fusion of Influenza virus suggested that multiple hairpin structures may form a narrow fusion pore which subsequently expands to a larger opening. In the case of HIV, this larger opening allows for passage of the Matrix-surrounded viral core out of the virus and into the host cell cytoplasm.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
3629244 Functional regions of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1

Sodroski, J, Potz, J, Dayton, A, Goh, WC, Basiripour, L, Kowalski, M, Rosen, C, Dorfman, T, Terwilliger, E

Science 1987
9094670 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptors participate in postentry stages in the virus replication cycle and function in simian immunodeficiency virus infection

Luciw, PA, Long, EM, Chackerian, B, Overbaugh, J

J Virol 1997
8076606 Evidence that HIV-1 Rev directly promotes the nuclear export of unspliced

Heckel, C, Meyer, S, Teufel, M, Luhrmann, R, Rautmann, G, Fischer, U

EMBO J 1994
10504731 Selection of gp41-mediated HIV-1 cell entry inhibitors from biased combinatorial libraries of non-natural binding elements

Weissenhorn, W, Skehel, JJ, Strassmaier, T, Ferrer, M, Schreiber, SL, Oprian, D, Harrison, SC, Wiley, DC, Kapoor, TM

Nat Struct Biol 1999
2846352 Quantitative measurement of fusion between human immunodeficiency virus and cultured cells using membrane fluorescence dequenching

Loyter, A, Volsky, DJ, Sinangil, F

FEBS Lett 1988

Hunter, E

12773651 Novel therapies based on mechanisms of HIV-1 cell entry

Eron, JJ, Kilby, JM

N Engl J Med 2003
11038187 Evidence that the transition of HIV-1 gp41 into a six-helix bundle, not the bundle configuration, induces membrane fusion

Delmedico, MK, Lambert, DM, Markosyan, RM, Cohen, FS, Melikyan, GB, Hemmati, H

J Cell Biol 2000
9166405 Structural features of membrane fusion between influenza virus and liposome as revealed by quick-freezing electron microscopy

Ikeuchi, Y, Murata, M, Kawasaki, K, Kanaseki, T, Ohnishi, S

J Cell Biol 1997
Event Information
Name Identifier Synonyms
Human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease DOID:526 HIV infection
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