Late Phase of HIV Life Cycle

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
Related Species
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
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The late phase of the HIV-1 life cycle includes the regulated expression of the HIV gene products and the assembly of viral particles. The assembly of viral particles will be covered in a later release of Reactome. HIV-1 gene expression is regulated by both cellular and viral proteins. Although the initial activation of the HIV-1 transcription is facilitated by cellular transcription factors including NF-kappa B (Nabel and Baltimore, 1987), this activation results in the production of primarily short transcripts (Kao et al., 1987). Expression of high levels of the full length HIV-1 transcript requires the function of the HIV-1 Tat protein which promotes elongation of the HIV-1 transcript (reviewed in Karn, 1999; Taube et al. 1999; Liou et al., 2004; Barboric and Peterlin 2005). The HIV-1 Rev protein is required post-transcriptionally for the expression of the late genes. Rev functions by promoting the nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced transcripts that encode the major structural proteins Gag, Pol and Env, and the majority of the accessory proteins (Malim et al., 1989; reviewed in Pollard and Malim 1998 .
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
15719065 A new paradigm in eukaryotic biology: HIV Tat and the control of transcriptional elongation

Peterlin, BM, Barboric, M

PLoS Biol 2005
2784194 The HIV-1 rev trans-activator acts through a structured target sequence to

Hauber, J, Cullen, BR, Maizel, JV, Malim, MH, Le, SY

Nature 1989
10550206 Tackling Tat

Karn, J

J Mol Biol 1999
15183343 HIV-1 infection and regulation of Tat function in macrophages

Liou, LY, Herrmann, CH

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2004
10562489 Tat transactivation: a model for the regulation of eukaryotic transcriptional elongation

Peterlin, BM, Barboric, M, Wimmer, J, Taube, R, Fujinaga, K

Virology 1999
2825027 Anti-termination of transcription within the long terminal repeat of HIV-1 by tat gene product

Peterlin, BM, Luciw, PA, Kao, SY, Calman, AF

Nature 1987
9891806 The HIV-1 Rev protein

Pollard, VW, Malim, MH

Annu Rev Microbiol 1998
3031512 An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells

Baltimore, D, Nabel, G

Nature 1987
Event Information
Go Biological Process
Name Identifier Synonyms
Human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease DOID:526 HIV infection
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