Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) binds NLRP3. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2 increase this interaction, while the ROS inhibitor APDC blocks it (Zhou et al. 2010). This interaction is proposed to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Heme oxygenase (HMOX1), besides its enzymatic activity of the dimeric membrane protein isoform, also occurs as soluble cytosolic protein. It is probably this form that binds to the NACHT domain of NLRP3, suppressing production of epithelial cell-derived cytokines induced by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and protecting airway epithelium in asthma (Lv et al, 2018).